A Swedish group carried out a study in 2013 to evaluate the effect of tactile massage (a gentle superficial form of massage) on metabolic biomarkers and BMI (body mass index and WC (waist circumference) in type II diabetes. Waist circumference was altered in women but not men and improvements were found for adiponectin, a protein involved in regulating glucose levels and fatty acid breakdown, and ratios of adiponectin to other factors.
Yoga / Relaxation /Qigong / Meditation
The most recent study that Patient QI found, evaluated the efficacy of yogic practice in geriatric patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus by comparing glycaemic control. Participants did yogic practice for 90 minutes each day for three months and HbA(1c), glucose, lipid profile, cortisol, ferritin, malondialdehyde (MDA) and catalase activity were measured on the first and last day. Results showed decrease in glucose, HbA(1c), lipids, cortisol, ferritin, MDA and an increase in catalase activity after yogic practice.
A study carried out in 2012 by a US group compared the levels of adiponectin (anti-inflammatory) and leptin (proinflammatory) in experienced practitioners of Hatha yoga and novice Hatha yoga practitioners.
Fifty healthy women, half yoga novices, half experts, provided fasting samples. With no major differences in the groups’ BMI, diet or cardio-respiratory fitness, researchers discovered the yoga experts had significantly lower levels of leptin and that their average adiponectin to leptin ratio was almost double that of the novices.
The study concluded that long term yoga practice could be beneficial to patients suffering from Type 2 Diabetes by changing the body’s leptin and adiponectin production patterns.
Findings from the Whitehall Epidemiological Study, which has followed the medical history of thousands of British civil servants since 1967, show a correlation between work stress and the risk of heart disease and Type 2 Diabetes. Consequently any system of stress reduction is billed to have a positive effect on stemming these conditions.
A study of 59 patients who had been diabetic for more than 12 years and who suffered from neuropathy (nerve damage outside of the brain and spinal cord) were enrolled in a 12 week program of a one hour session of Tai Chi twice a week. The average age of participants was 64. They were tested for glucose control, balance and quality of life using the Korean version of SF-36v2, Health Survey Scoring Demonstration.
The patients’ final scores saw considerable improvement in all three areas and larger sample tests, plus long-term follow up, are planned to ascertain if Tai Chi practice could significantly prevent falls in diabetic patients with neuropathy.